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traduko en

Esperanto (fuŝeta ĉi momente)

la termino

en diversaj lingvoj

la difino de

la termino, rimarkoj, ekzemploj...

Agentejoj de Eŭropa Unio; Eŭropuniaj agentejoj en:European Union agencies

fr:Agences de l'Union européenne
nl:Agentschappen van de Europese Unie

de:Agenturen der Europäischen Union

agadkampoj de la Unio en:areas of Union action
fr:domaines d’action de l’Union

Aliĝa partnereco en:Accession partnership

fr:Partenariat pour l'adhésion

nl:Partnerschap voor de toetreding

Aliĝaj kriterioj en:Accession criteria

(Copenhagen criteria)
fr:Critères d'adhésion (critères de Copenhague)

nl:Toetredingscriteria (criteria van Kopenhagen)

Aliĝaj intertraktoj en:Accession negotiations

fr:Négociations d'adhésion

nl:Toetredingsonderhandelingen

Aliĝo de nova membroŝtato en:Accession of new Member

States to the European Union
fr:Adhésion d'un nouvel État à l'Union

nl:Toetreding van een nieuwe lidstaat

alprenas la aranĝojn necesajn en:adopt such measures as

are necessary

fr:adopte les mesures nécessaires

alpreni mocion pri malaprobo en:pass a censure motion
fr:adopter une motion de censure

Altra reprezentanto por la

...(S-ro

kaj s-ino ...)
en:High Representative for the

CFSP (Mr/Ms CFSP)
fr:Haut représentant pour la PESC (M. ou Mme PESC)
nl:Hoge vertegenwoordiger voor het gemeenschappelijk buitenlandsen veiligheidsbeleid (GBVB)

de:Hoher Vertreter für die GASP (Herr und Frau GASP)

Antaŭaliĝa helpo/ subteno en:Pre-accession assistance

fr:Aide de préadhésion
nl:Pretoetredingssteun

de:Heranführungshilfe

Antaŭaliĝa strategio en:Pre-accession strategy

fr:Stratégie de préadhésion
nl:Pretoetredingsstrategie

de:Heranführungsstrategie

Antaŭzorga principo en:Precautionary Principle

fr:Principe de précaution
nl:Voorzorgsbeginsel

de:Vorsorgeprinzip

Areo de libero, sekuro kaj justo en:Area of freedom, security and

justice
fr:Espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice

nl:Ruimte van vrijheid, veiligheid en rechtvaardigheid

Aŭdvida politiko en:Audiovisual policy

fr:Audiovisuel

nl:Audiovisueel beleid

Bestbonfarto en:Animal welfare

fr:Bien-être des animaux

nl:Dierenwelzijn

Blankaj libroj en:White Paper

fr:Livres blancs
nl:Witboeken

de:Weißbücher

burokrato en: bureaucrat

fr:bureaucrate
nl:bureaucraat
de:Bürokrat

potenculo pro la ofico
Buĝeto en:Budget

fr:Budget
nl:Begroting, budget
de:Budget


protektado de la loĝantaro en:civil protection
fr:protection civile

Civitaneco de la unio en:Citizenship of the Union

fr:Citoyenneté de l'Union

nl:Burgerschap van de Unie

COREU (CORespondance

EUropéenne)

en:COREU (CORespondance

EUropéenne)
fr:COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne)

nl:COREU ("CORrespondance EUropéenne")
COREU estas EU komunikreto

inter la Membroŝtatoj kaj la Komisiono por kunlaboro sur la tereno de eksterlanda politiko. Ĝi plifaciligas rapidan decidadfon okaze de

krizaj situacioj.
Daŭrigebla evoluigo;

Daŭrigebla evoluo

en:Sustainable development

fr:Développement durable
nl:Duurzame ontwikkeling

de:Nachhaltige Entwicklung
(depende

de la kunteksto)

Debato pri la estonteco deEŭropa Unio en:Debate on the future of the

European Union
fr:Débat sur l'avenir de l'Union européenne
nl:Debat over de toekomst van de Europese Unie

de:

Decido kaj kadra decido (TitoloVI de la EUa traktato) en:Decision and framework

decision (Title VI of the EUTreaty)
fr:Décision et décision-cadre (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Besluit en kaderbesluit (Titel VI van het VEU)

de:Beschluss und Rahmenbeschluss (Titel VI EU-Vertrag)

Deklaro;

deklaracio

en:Declaration (CFSP)

fr:Déclaration (PESC)
nl:Verklaring (GBVB)

de:Erklärung (GASP)

Deklaro de Laken en:Laeken Declaration

fr:Déclaration de Laeken
nl:Verklaring van Laken

de:

Demokratia deficito en:Democratic deficit

fr:Déficit démocratique
nl:Democratisch tekort

de:

deskribi en:
fr:défalquer
akcepti ke monsumo estas

perdita aŭ ŝuldo ne repagota;(metafore) opinii ion neatentinda, neutila

(diversloke trovebla en tiusenco, sed ne registrita en NPIV)
Disdivido de kompetentoj. en:Distribution of competences

fr:Répartition des compétences
nl:Verdeling van de bevoegdheden

de:

dispozicioj en:provisions
fr:dispositions

Eŭropo kun pluraj rapidoj en:'Multi-speed' Europe

fr:Europe 'à plusieurs vitesses'
nl:Europa "met meerdere snelheden"

de:Europa unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeiten

Doganunio en:Customs union

fr:Union douanière
nl:Douane-unie

de:Zollunion

Duobla majoritato en:Double majority

fr:Double majorité
nl:Dubbele meerderheid

de:

Dura Kerno
en:Hard core

fr:Noyau dur
nl:Harde kern

de:Harter Kern

"Hard core" refers to a limited group of countries able and willing to develop 'closer cooperation'.

This concept found practical expression in the implementation of the Schengen area, which enabled a group of Member States to progressively curtail border checks and to establish freedom of movement for persons. This hard core was initially set up outside the EU's institutional framework, but was eventually integrated into the treaties through its incorporation into the Amsterdam Treaty.

The Amsterdam Treaty formally adopted the use of the hard core concept through its introduction of the 'closer cooperation' mechanism. 'Closer cooperation' enables a certain number of Member States to further the construction of Europe within the EU's institutional framework.

Edukado en:Education

fr:Education
nl:Onderwijs

de:Bildung

eEurope (informada socio por ĉiuj) en:eEurope
fr:

The European Commission launched the eEurope initiative in December 1999, and it was approved by the Lisbon European Council in March 2000. The communication adopted, "eEurope - an information society for all", is part of the Lisbon Strategy which states that the European Union should become, by 2010, the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. The main objectives of the initiative are the following:

  • bringing every citizen, home and school, every business and administration, into the digital age and online;
  • creating a digitally literate Europe, supported by an entrepreneurial culture open to information technology;
  • ensuring that the information society is socially inclusive.

To achieve this, the Commission adopted the eEurope 2002 action plan in May 2000. The main actions were intended to stimulate a cheaper, faster, more secure Internet, promote human and financial investment and stimulate the use of the Internet.

The eEurope 2005 action plan succeeded eEurope 2002. eEurope 2005 was essentially focused on the deployment of broadband access at competitive prices, network security and better use of information technology by public bodies ("eGovernment").

Launched in June 2005, the "i2010" initiative is a new strategy framework of the Commission in the field of the information society and the media. i2010 is the first Commission initiative adopted in the context of the revised Lisbon Strategy and the partnership for growth and employment.

efektivigantaj aktoj en:implementing acts
fr: actes d’exécution de l’Union

Egalaj ŝancoj en:Equal opportunities

fr:Egalité des chances
nl:Gelijke kansen

de:Gelijke kansen

Egalrajteco inter virinoj kaj viroj en:Equal treatment for men and

women
fr:Egalité de traitement entre les hommes et les femmes
nl:Gelijke behandeling van mannen en vrouwen

de:Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern
seksa egalrajteco
Ekonomia kaj Mona Unio en:Economic and Monetary Union

fr:Union économique et monétaire (UEM)
nl:Economische en Monetaire Unie (EMU)

de:

Ekonomia politiko en:Economic policy

fr:Politique économique
nl:Economisch beleid

de:

Ekonomia, sociala kaj teritoriakohero en:Economic, social and

territorial cohesion
fr:Cohésion économique, sociale et territoriale
nl:Economische, sociale en territoriale samenhang

de:Wirtschaftlicher, sozialer und territorialer Zusammenhalt

Eksteraj kompetentoj de la Eŭropa Komunumo en:External responsibilities of

the European Community
fr:Compétences externes de la Communauté européenne
nl:Externe bevoegdheden van de Europese Gemeenschap

de:Außenkompetenzen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft

eksterordinara kunsido en:a special meeting
fr:une réunion extraordinaire

elektita per senpera universala baloto en:elected by direct

universalsuffrage

fr:élu au suffrage universel direct

kadre de la

agadrajtoj atribuitaj al ĝi;
kadre de siaj rajtigoj

en:within the limits of the

powersconferred on it
fr:dans les limites des attributions qui lui sont

conférées

Energio en:Energy

fr:Énergie
nl:Energie

de:

Entreprena politiko en:Enterprise policy

fr:Politique d'entreprise
nl:Ondernemingenbeleid

de:Unternehmenspolitik

fuzio en:Mergers

fr:Concentration
nl:Concentratie

de:Unternehmenszusammenschluss
  (PIV, dua senco)
Esplorado kaj evoluigo en:Research and development

fr:Recherche et développement
nl:Onderzoek en ontwikkeling

de:Forschung und Entwicklung

Evoluiga helpo en:Development aid

fr:Aide au développement
nl:Ontwikkelingshulp

de:

Eŭrobabilo en:Eurobable
fr:

Eŭropa arestmandato en:European arrest warrant

fr:Mandat d'arrêt européen
nl:Europees aanhoudingsbevel

de:Europäischer Haftbefehl

Eŭropa centra banko en:European Central Bank (ECB)

fr:Banque centrale européenne (BCE)
nl:Europese Centrale Bank (ECB)

de:Europäische Zentralbank (EZB)

Eŭropa mediatoro en:Ombudsman

fr:Médiateur européen
nl:Ombudsman (Europese)

de:Europäischer Bürgerbeauftragter (Ombudsmann)

Eŭropa ekonomia kaj sociakomitato en:European Economic and Social

Committee (EESC)
fr:Comité économique et social européen (CESE)
nl:Europees Economisch en Sociaal Comité (EESC)

de:

Eŭropa areo de esplorado en:European Research Area (ERA)

fr:Espace européen de la recherche (EER)
nl:Europese onderzoeksruimte (EOR)

de:Forschungsraum (EFR)

The European Research Area brings together all of the Community's resources to better coordinate research and innovation activities at the level of both the Member States and the European Union.

This concept was launched by the Commission in 2000 with the idea of developing truly attractive opportunities for researchers.

Previously, research at European level had faced numerous difficulties: fragmentation of activities, isolation of national research systems, disparity of regulatory and administrative frameworks, and low levels of investment in knowledge.

Through the resources made available, the ERA should make it possible to share data, compare results, carry out multi-disciplinary studies, transfer and protect new scientific knowledge and gain access to centres of excellence and state-of-the-art equipment.

The European research area should thus fulfil an ambition of determining value for the European Union, namely to develop a genuine common research policy.

Eŭropa evoluiga fondaĵo (fonduso?) en:European Development Fund

fr:Fonds européen de développement
nl:Europees Ontwikkelingsfonds

de:

Created by the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the European Development Fund (EDF) is the main instrument providing Community aid for development cooperation with the countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP countries) and with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs).

The EDF finances any projects or programmes which contribute to the economic, social or cultural development of the countries in question. It consists of several instruments, including grants, risk capital and loans to the private sector.

The EDF is funded by the Member States and does not yet come under the general Community budget. However, the aid granted to OCTs is to be included in the European Union's general budget as of 1 January 2008, while the aid granted to ACP countries will continue to be funded by the EDF, at least for the period 2008-2013.

Each EDF, which generally follows the cycle of the partnership agreements, is concluded for a period of around five years. The ninth EDF (2000-2007) has been allocated 13.5 billion euros, in addition to 9.9 billion euros left over from the previous EDFs. The European Investment Bank's own resources contribution adds a further 1.7 billion euros over the period covered by the ninth EDF.

Eŭropa iniciato por demokratiokaj homaj rajtoj en:European Initiative for

Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR)
fr:Initiative européenne pour la démocratie et les droits del'homme (IEDDH)
nl:Europees initiatief voor democratie en mensenrechten (EIDHR)
de:Europäische Initiative für Demokratie und

Menschenrechte (EIDHR)

Eŭropa investadbanko en:European Investment Bank

(EIB)
fr:Banque européenne d'investissement (BEI)
nl:Europese Investeringsbank (EIB)

de:

Eŭropa Jura kunlaborado... en:Eurojust

fr:
nl:

de:

Eŭropa justica reto prikrimaferoj en:European Judicial Network in

criminal matters (EJN)
fr:European Judicial Network in criminal matters (EJN)
nl:Europees justitieel netwerk in strafzaken (EJN)

de:

eŭropa komisionano en:European Commissioner
fr:Commissaire européen

Eŭropa Komisiono en:European Commission

fr:Commission européenne
nl:Europese Commissie

de:Europäische Kommission

Eŭropa Komisiono en:the European Commission,
fr:la Commission européenne

Eŭropa kompanio
en:European Company

fr:Société européenne
nl:Europese vennootschap

de:Europäische Gesellschaft

Eŭropa Komunumo en:European Community

fr:Communauté européenne
nl:Europese Gemeenschap

de:Europäische Gemeinschaft

Eŭropa konsento en:Europe agreement

fr:Accord européen
nl:Europaovereenkomst

de:Europa-Abkommen

Eŭropa Konsilio en:European Council

fr:Conseil européen
nl:Europese Raad

de:

Eŭropa Konstitucio en:European Constitution

fr:Constitution (projet de)
nl:Europese Grondwet

de:Verfassungsprojekt

Eŭropa Konvencio en:European Convention

fr:Convention européenne
nl:Europese Conventie

de:Europäischer Konvent

European Convention

The process of setting up the European Convention began in December 2000 with a Declaration annexed to the Nice Treaty, the "Declaration on the Future of the Union". This proposed continuing with institutional reform beyond what had been achieved at the 2000 Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) following a three-stage procedure: launching a debate on the future of the European Union, a Convention on institutional reform to be set up as decided at the Laeken European Council in December 2001 and an IGC to be convened in 2004.

According to the Laeken Declaration, which created it, the aim of this Convention was to examine four key questions on the future of the Union: the division of powers, the simplification of the treaties, the role of the national parliaments and the status of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. Three phases were envisaged: a listening phase, a deliberating phase and a drafting phase. At the end of the last phase, a single constitutional text would be proposed. This document would serve as the starting point for the IGC negotiations conducted by the Heads of State and Government, ultimately responsible for any decision on amendments to the treaties.

The inaugural meeting of the Convention was held on 28 February 2002, and it concluded its work on 10 July 2003 after reaching agreement on a proposal for a European Constitution.

The Convention is an innovation in the history of the European Union as previous IGCs had never been preceded by a phase of debate open to all stakeholders.

On18 June 2004, the Intergovernmental Conference met at Head of State or Government level and agreed on the draft European Constitution prepared by the Convention.

Eŭropa Kortumo en:the European Court of Justice


fr:la Cour de justice européenne,

Eŭropa strategio pri dungado en:European Employment Strategy

(EES)
fr:Stratégie européenne pour l'emploi (SEE)
nl:Europese werkgelegenheidsstrategie (EWS)

de:Europäische Beschäftigungsstrategie (EBS)

Eŭropa Parlamento en:European Parliament

fr:Parlement européen
nl:Europees Parlement

de:

Eŭropa Parlamento en:the European Parliament
fr:le Parlement européen

Eŭropa policofico en:Europol (European Police

Office)
fr:Europol (Office européen de police)
nl:Europol (Europese Politiedienst)

de:Europol (Europäisches Polizeiamt)

Eŭropa politika kunlaborado en:European political

cooperation (EPC)
fr:Coopération politique européenne (CPE)
nl:Europese politieke samenwerking (EPS)

de:Europäische Politische Zusammenarbeit (EPZ)

Eŭropa reglamento en:European regulation
fr:règlement européen
  (PIV, eĉ kun

ekzemplofrazo)

Eŭropa Revizora Kortumo
en:European Court of Auditors

fr:Cour des comptes européenne
nl:Europese Rekenkamer

de:Europäischer Rechnungshof

Eŭropa sekureca kaj defenda identeco en:European security and defence

identity
fr:Identité européenne de sécurité et de défense
nl:Europese veiligheids- en defensie-identiteit

de:Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungsidentität

Eŭropa sekurec- kaj defendpolitiko en:European Security and Defence

Policy (ESDP)
fr:Politique européenne de sécurité et de défense (PESD)
nl:Europees veiligheids- en defensiebeleid (EVDB)

de:Europäische Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik (ESVP)

Eŭropa Konvencio pri Homaj

Rajtoj

en:European Convention on Human

Rights (ECHR)
fr:Convention européenne des droits de l'homme (CEDH)
nl:Europees Verdrag tot bescherming van de rechten van de mensen de fundamentele vrijheden (EVRM)

de:Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention (MRK)

The European Convention on Human Rights, signed in Rome under the aegis of the Council of Europe on 4 November 1950, established an unprecedented system of international protection for human rights, offering individuals the possibility of applying to the courts for the enforcement of their rights. The Convention, which has been ratified by all the Member States of the Union, established a number of supervisory bodies based in Strasbourg. These were:

  • a Commission responsible for advance examination of applications from States or from individuals;
  • a European Court of Human Rights, to which cases were referred by the Commission or by a Member State following a report by the Commission (in the case of a judicial settlement);
  • a Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, which acted as the guardian of the ECHR and was called upon to secure a political settlement of a dispute where a case was not brought before the Court.

The growing number of cases made it necessary to reform the supervisory arrangements established by the Convention. The supervisory bodies were thus replaced on 1 November 1998 by a single European Court of Human Rights. The simplified structure shortened the length of procedures and enhanced the judicial character of the system.

The idea of the European Union acceding to the ECHR has often been raised. However, in an opinion given on 28 March 1996, the Court of Justice of the European Union stated that the European Communities could not accede to the Convention because the EC Treaty did not provide any powers to lay down rules or to conclude international agreements on human rights.

The Treaty of Amsterdam nevertheless calls for respect for the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Convention, while formalising the judgments of the Court of Justice on the matter. As regards relations between the two Courts, the practice developed by the Court of Justice of incorporating the principles of the Convention into Union law has made it possible to maintain their independence and coherence in their work.

The Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, nevertheless provides for the European Union to have legal personality, thus enabling it to accede to the ECHR. It also provides for the incorporation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, announced at the Nice European Council on 7 December 2000, which will give it binding legal force.

Eŭropa Unio
en:European Union

fr:Union européenne
nl:Europese Unie

de:Europäische Union
evitu: Eŭropunio
Eŭropa decido en:European decision
fr: décision européenne

Eŭropaj institucioj en:European institutions

fr:Institutions européennes
nl:Europese instellingen

de:Europäische Organe

Eŭropaj kadro-leĝoj en:European framework laws
fr:lois-cadreseuropéennes

Eŭropo "kun variigebla

geometrio"

en:'Variable-geometry' Europe

fr:Europe 'à géométrie variable'
nl:Europa "met variabele geometrie"

de:Europa (!)

filozofiajkaj nekonfesiaj organizoj en:philosophical

andnon-confessional organisations.

fr:organisations philosophiques etnon confessionnelles

Financaj perspektivoj;

Financa

antaŭrigardo
en:Financial perspective

fr:Perspectives financières
nl:Financiële vooruitzichten

de:Finanzielle Vorausschau

intensigita kunlaboro en:enhanced cooperation
fr:coopération renforcée

Enhanced cooperation allows those countries of the Union that wish to continue to work more closely together to do so, while respecting the single institutional framework of the Union. The Member States concerned can thus move forward at different speeds and/or towards different goals. However, enhanced cooperation does not allow extension of the powers as laid down by the Treaties. Moreover it may be undertaken only as a last resort, when it has been established within the Council that the objectives of such cooperation cannot be attained within a reasonable period by applying the relevant provisions of the Treaties.

The general arrangements for enhanced cooperation are laid down by the Treaty on European Union (EU Treaty, Title VII) and relate to both the European Union and the European Community. In principle, at least eight States must be involved in enhanced cooperation, but it remains open to any State that wishes to participate. It may not constitute discrimination between the participating States and the others. Enhanced cooperation must also further the Treaty objectives and respect the whole of the acquis communautaire and the powers of the various parties. It may not apply to an area that falls within the exclusive competence of the Community.

In addition to the general regime, special arrangements may be made or added by individual Treaties, as in the case of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty, Articles 11 and 11 A). Under the EC Treaty, for example, the initiative for enhanced cooperation is taken by the Commission at the request of the Member States concerned, whereas under the EU Treaty the initiative comes from the Member States. In either case, institution of enhanced cooperation is subject to a decision of the Council, acting by a qualified majority. Enhanced cooperation may also be pursued in relation to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), except for military or defence matters.

The Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated the "enhanced cooperation" concept into the Treaty on European Union as regards judicial cooperation on criminal matters and into the Treaty establishing the European Community. The Treaty of Nice introduced major changes aimed at simplifying the mechanism. In particular, a Member State may not oppose the establishment of enhanced cooperation as originally allowed by the Treaty of Amsterdam.

The European Constitution now being ratified provides for easier recourse to this mechanism. In particular, the initial authorisation procedures and those concerning participation by other Member States at a later stage have been simplified. The minimum participation threshold has been set at one third of Member States. The restrictions concerning the CFSP are removed. The Constitution provides for a special mechanism in defence matters: permanent structured cooperation.

eksteregaj regionoj;

periferiegaj regionoj

en:Outermost regions

fr:Régions ultrapériphériques
nl:Ultraperifere regio's

de:Gebiete in äußerster Randlage

There are seven "outermost regions": Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion (the four French overseas departments), the Canaries (Spain), and the Azores and Madeira (Portugal). Those regions are distinguished by their low population density and considerable distance from mainland Europe. Their specific location makes them European bridgeheads for fostering trade relations with their non-EU neighbours, most of whom are less-developed countries. Above all, on account of those regions, the maritime territory of the European Union is the world's largest with an economic zone covering 25 million km².

The outermost regions are the subject of a Declaration annexed to the EC Treaty and may benefit from specific measures on the basis of Article 299 of that Treaty. This Declaration acknowledges their considerable structural backwardness. In addition, all the outermost regions are eligible for regional and social policy support measures under Objective 1 for the period from 2000 to 2006. The Declaration provides for the possibility of adopting specific measures to assist them as long as there is an objective need to promote their economic and social development. In addition, Article 299 of the Treaty authorises the Council to adopt specific measures laying down conditions for applying the Treaty and common policies to the outermost regions.

Galileo (la Eŭropa navigada sistemo) en:Galileo
fr:

Genetike modifitaj organismoj en:Genetically modified

organisms (GMO)
fr:Organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM)
nl:Genetisch gemodificeerde organismen (ggo's)

de:Gentechnisch veränderte Organismen (GVO)

Globalaj gvidilinioj por la ekonomia politiko en:Broad economic policy

guidelines (BEPG)
fr:Grandes orientations des politiques économiques (GOPE)

nl:Globale richtsnoeren voor het economisch beleid (GREB)

Tutmondig(/iĝ)o de la ekonomio en:Globalisation of the economy

fr:Globalisation de l'économie (mondialisation)
nl:Globalisering

de:Globalisierung der Wirtschaft (Internationalisierung)

gvidlinioj en:guidelines
fr:orientation

habilitigi en:
fr:
rekoni al iu ties atingon de

scienca grado (habilitiĝitroviĝas en Angla-Esperanta-Hungara etvortaro

pri Lernado kaj Laboro,Koutny, 2002)
Hierarkio de la komunuma

aktaro;
normhierarkio;

hierarkio de la normoj
en:Hierarchy of Community acts

(hierarchy of norms)
fr:Hiérarchie des actes communautaires (hiérarchie des normes)
nl:Hiërarchie tussen de communautaire besluiten(voorschriftenhiërarchie)
de:Hierarchie der gemeinschaftlichen Rechtsakte (Normenhierarchie)

A declaration annexed to the Treaty on European Union states that it might be possible to review the classification of Community acts with a view to establishing an appropriate hierarchy between the different categories of act.

The main purpose of such a hierarchy would be to enable the lawmaking authority to concentrate on policy aspects of particular issues rather than on questions of detail. It would dictate the shape of the Community decision-making process by ensuring that instruments of constitutional status were subject to more restrictive procedures (such as adoption by unanimous vote, reinforced qualified majority, and assent) than legislative instruments, which are themselves subject to less flexible procedures (for example, the codecision procedure) than implementing instruments (for instance, the institutionalised delegation of powers to the Commission).

The subject was addressed in 1990 in the early discussions on the possibility of incorporating the codecision procedure into the Treaty. The underlying idea was to avoid an over-rigorous procedure being applied to certain acts of secondary importance and thereby prevent the legislative machinery becoming congested. In 1991, during the negotiations on the Treaty of Maastricht, the Commission proposed introducing a hierarchy of norms and a new system for classifying Community instruments (treaties, laws, secondary or implementing acts), but failed to overcome the problems posed by the different national legal traditions.

The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for simplification of this hierarchy of norms. It establishes three categories of instrument, governed by different decision-making procedures:

  • Legislative instruments - European laws and framework laws
  • Non-legislative instruments - European regulations and decisions
  • Non-mandatory instruments - opinions and recommendations

The Constitution also provides for general use of the codecision procedure, which would become the ordinary legislative procedure for adopting European laws and framework laws.

Homaj rajtoj en:Human rights

fr:Droits de l'Homme
nl:Rechten van de mens

de:Menschenrechte

i2010 (informadika programo) en:i2010

fr:i2010
nl:i2010

de:i2010

Following its launch in June 2005, i2010 -- A European Information Society for 2010 -- is the European Commission's new strategic framework for the information and media society.

i2010 centres on three priorities:

  • completing a single European information space which will encourage an open, competitive internal market for the information and media society;
  • promoting innovation and investment in research into information and communication technologies (ICT);
  • creating a European information society based on inclusion and stressing better public services and quality of life.

i2010 is the first initiative taken by the Commission within the renewed Lisbon partnership for growth and employment. This strategy follows on from two action plans, eEurope 2002 and eEurope 2005, which set out the steps to be taken to promote ICT in Europe.

identigi operaciajn postulojn en:to identify

operational requirements

fr: identifier les besoins opérationnels

Imposta harmoniigo Iniciativa en:Tax harmonisation

fr:Harmonisation fiscale
nl:Belastingharmonisatie

de:Steuerharmonisierung

Impostado en:Taxation

fr:Fiscalité
nl:Belasting

de:Steuern

Inform(ad)a socio/informadilaro? informteknikaro? en:Information Society

fr:Société de l'information
nl:Informatiemaatschappij

de:Informationsgesellschaft

The information society is synonymous with what is meant by "new information and communication technologies" (ICT). Since the beginning of the 90s, the new ICT have been booming. The universal use of electronic exchanges of information, convergence towards digital technologies, the exponential growth of the Internet and the opening up of telecommunications markets are all signs of this change.

The information society is revolutionising many areas of everyday life, particularly access to training and knowledge (distance learning, e-learning related services), work organisation and mobilisation of skills (teleworking, virtual companies), practical life (e-health services) and leisure. It is also providing new opportunities in terms of participation of citizens by making it easier to express opinions and points of view. However, these positive advances go hand-in-hand with new concerns: mass use of the Internet means that steps have to be taken against new criminal behaviour, pirating, and questions of protection of personal data and intellectual property. Moreover, the information society may contribute to the marginalisation of certain sections of society by emphasising social inequalities.

In the light of these potential benefits and threats, the European Union has placed the information society at the heart of its strategy for the 21st century. Among other things it has launched a series of support and promotion actions (eEurope action plan) and adopted measures aimed at controlling and limiting the risks associated with the development of the information society such as an action plan aimed at promoting safe use of the Internet and combating unlawful and harmful messages.

Iniciat-rajto en:Right of initiative

fr:Droit d'initiative
nl:Initiatiefrecht

de:Initiativrecht

Institucia ekvilibro en:Institutional balance

fr:Equilibre institutionnel
nl:Institutioneel evenwicht

de:Institutionelles Gleichgewicht

Intelekta posedaĵo en:Intellectual property

fr:Propriété intellectuelle
nl:Intellectuele-eigendomsrechten

de:Geistiges Eigentum

konsento;

ĝenerala konsento

en:consensus.
fr:consensus

Interkonsento pri sociala politiko en:Social Policy Agreement

fr:Accord social
nl:Overeenkomst betreffende de sociale politiek

de:Abkommen über die Sozialpolitik

Interregistara konferenco en:Intergovernmental Conference

(IGC)
fr:Conférence intergouvernementale (CIG)
nl:Intergouvernementele Conferentie (IGC)

de:Regierungskonferenz (RK)

Ionanina(?) kompromiso en:Ioannina compromise

fr:Compromis de Ioannina
nl:Compromis van Ioannina

de:

The Ioannina compromise takes its name from an informal meeting of foreign ministers in the Greek city of Ioannina on 29 March 1994. Among the decisions taken at the meeting was a Council decision concerning the specific question of qualified majority voting in an enlarged 16-member Community. The decision was later adjusted in the light of Norway's decision not to join. The resulting compromise lays down that if members of the Council representing between 23 votes (the old blocking minority threshold) and 26 votes (the new threshold) express their intention of opposing the taking of a decision by the Council by qualified majority, the Council will do all within its power, within a reasonable space of time, to reach a satisfactory solution that can be adopted by at least 68 votes out of 87.

Following the re-weighting of votes in the Council of Ministers, the Treaty of Nice puts an end to the Ioannina compromise.

Jesa proceduro;
konformeca proceduro
en:Assent procedure

fr:Procédure de l'avis conforme

nl:Instemmingsprocedure

Junularo en:Youth

fr:Jeunesse
nl:Jeugd

de:Jugend

jura personeco en:legal personality
fr:personnalité juridique

Jurpersoneco de la unio en:Legal personality of the

Union
fr:Personnalité juridique de l'Union
nl:Rechtspersoonlijkheid van de Unie

de:Rechtspersönlichkeit der Union

jurŝtato;

ŝtato regata laŭ juro

da:retsstat

en:rule of law; law state; a state governed by law

fr:état de droit


leĝa regulo
da:retsregel

en:law rule; legal act
fr:règle de droit


principoj de juro
da:retsprincipper

en:principles of law
fr:principes de droit


unuaeco de juro;

aferoj rilataj al ŝtato regata laŭ juro

da:retsstatsforhold

en:primacy of law; matters pertaining to a state governed by law
fr:prééminence du droit; primauté de droit


principo de laŭleĝeco;

principo de leĝkonforma administrado

da:legalitetsprincip; princip om

lovmaessig forvaltning
en:the principle of legality; the principle of legally valid administration
fr:principe de légalité


juĝaj kaj eksterjuĝejaj decidoj en:judicial and

extrajudicial decisions

fr: décisions judiciaires etextrajudiciaires

Kandidatataj membroŝtatoj en:Candidate countries

fr:Pays candidats à l'adhésion

nl:Kandidaat-lidstaten

Klasifiko de la elspezoj en:Classification of expenditure


fr:Classification des dépenses

nl:Classificatie van de uitgaven

Kodado de leĝaraj/ juraj? tekstoj en:Consolidation of legislation

- informal/declaratory
fr:Consolidation des textes législatifs
nl:Consolidatie van wetteksten

de:Konsolidierung der Rechtsvorschriften
Formal or official consolidation

of legislation involves adopting a new legal instrument, published in the Official Journal (L series), which incorporates and repeals the instruments being consolidated (basic instrument + amending instrument(s)) without altering their substance. It can be:

  • vertical: the new instrument incorporates the basic instrument and instruments amending it into a single instrument;
  • horizontal: the new instrument incorporates several parallel basic instruments - and amendments thereto - relating to the same matter into a single instrument.

There is a special procedure for unofficial, purely declaratory consolidation of legislation and simplification of legal instruments. The incorporation of subsequent amendments into the body of a basic act does not entail the adoption of a new instrument. It is simply a clarification exercise conducted by the Commission. The resulting text, which has no formal legal effect, can, where appropriate, be published in the Official Journal (C Series)

without citations or recitals.
Kolegio en:College
fr:Collège

Kolektiva defendado en:Collective defence

fr:Défense collective

nl:Collectieve verdediging

Kolektiva/ komuna agado
en:Joint action (CFSP)

fr:Action commune (PESC)

nl:Gemeenschappelijk optreden (GBVB)

Komitato laŭ la artikolo 36 de

la EUa traktato

en:Article 36 Committee (Title

VI of the EU Treaty)
fr:Comité de l'article 36 du traité UE

nl:Comité van artikel 36 van het EU-Verdrag

Komitato de la regionoj en:Committee of the Regions

fr:Comité des régions (CdR)

nl:Comité van de Regio's (CdR)

Komitato de la Konstantaj


Reprezentantoj

en:Coreper

fr:Coreper (Comité des représentants permanents)
nl:Coreper

de:Ausschuss der Ständigen Vertreter (AStV)

Komitato por laboraferoj en:Employment Committee

fr:Comité de l'emploi
nl:Comité voor de werkgelegenheid

de:Beschäftigungsausschuss

Komitatoj kaj laborgrupoj en:Committees and working

parties
fr:Comités et groupes de travail

nl:Comités en werkgroepen

The committees, whose task it is to assist the Community institutions, are involved at all stages of the legislative process. The Commission regularly consults committees of experts before drawing up a new proposal for legislation. These committees, which are made up of representatives of the milieŭ involved, private sector or national government experts, ensure that the Commission remains open to the concerns of those who will be affected by the legislation. There are about 60 advisory committees covering all sectors, though about half of them deal with agricultural issues.

In the European Parliament, various permanent committees organise the work of the MEPs.

The Council is also assisted by committees and working parties which prepare its decisions. The existence of certain committees is provided for in the treaties (Article 36 Committee for justice and home affairs, for example), and others are ad hoc committees such as the Cultural Affairs Committee, which evaluates proposals on cultural cooperation, prepares the Council discussions and follows up action taken. These committees are made up of representatives of the Member States plus one member of the Commission. In parallel, various working parties do the preparatory work for Coreper. While some of them are set up on a temporary basis to deal with a particular dossier, about a hundred groups cover a given sector and meet regularly.

When a legislative text has been adopted, it lays down the general principles to be respected. More precise implementing measures may be necessary to apply these principles. In this case, the text provides that a committee is to be set up within the Commission in order to take the appropriate decisions. These committees are made up of experts nominated by the Member States and chaired by the Commission, and are generally governed by rules established by the 28 June 1999 Council decision known as the 'Comitology Decision'. There are about 300 of them, in the fields of industry, social affairs, agriculture, the environment, the internal market, research and development, consumer protection and food safety.

Komitatologio
en:Comitology

fr:Comitologie

nl:Comitologie
Laŭ la Traktato stariganta la

Eŭropan Komunumon (EK Traktato, Artikolo 202), la Komisiono efektivigas la leĝaron je Komunuma nivelo. Praktike, ĉiu leĝa akto difinas la limojn de la efektivigantaj kompetentoj atribuitaj al la Komisiono fare de la Konsilantaro de la Eŭropa Unio. En tiu kunteksto, la Traktato preskribas ke la Komisiono estu helpita de komitato, laŭ procezo nomita "Komitatologio".

La komitatoj estas diskutejoj, kaj konsistas el reprezentantoj de Membroŝtatoj; ili estas sub la prezido de la Komisiono. Ili ebligas, ke la Komisiono establu dialogon kun naciaj registaroj antaŭ ol alpreni efektivigantajn decidojn. La Komisiono certigas ke ili konformiĝas kiel plej eblas al la situacio en ĉiu  koncerna lando.

Rilatoj inter la Komisiono kaj la komitatoj estas regulataj laŭ modeloj preskribitaj de la Konsilio,  la "Komitatologia Decido" adoptita la 28-an de Junio 1999. Tiu garantias al la Parlamento la rajton kontroli la efektivigon de leĝdonaj aktoj alprenitaj laŭ sub la kundecida procezo. La Parlamento povas kontraŭi la projektojn de la Komisiono, aŭ eventuale de la Konsilio, kiam ĝi konsideras ke tiuj projektoj estas ekster ties kompetentoj.

La sekvaj kategorioj de komitatoj povas esti dividitaj, laŭ la maniero kiel ili funkcias:

  • konsultaj komitatojn: ili donas ilian opinion al la Komisiono, kiu devas konsideri ilin. Tiu procezo estas ĝenerale uzita kiam la aferoj diskutataj ne estas politike tiklaj.
  • priadministraj komitatoj: se la aranĝoj kiujn la Komisiono finprenis ne konformiĝas al la komitata opinio, la Komisiono devas komuniki ilin al la Konsilio, kiu povus preni malsaman decidon Tiu procezo estas uzita ekz. por aranĝoj rilate al administrado de la komunaj politikoj agraraj , fiŝkaptaj kaj ĉefajn Komunumajn programojn.
  • priregulaj komitatoj: se la aranĝoj, kiujn la Komisiono finprenis, ne konformiĝas al la komitata opinio, la Komisiono devas komuniki ilin al la Konsilio,  kaj informi la Eŭropan Parlamenton. Se la Konsilio kontraŭas proponon de la Komisiono, la Komisiono devas reekzameni ĝin. Ĝi povas prezenti amendon aŭ novan proponon, aŭ povas denove prezenti la saman proponon. Tiu procezo estas uzita ekz. por aranĝoj kiuj rilatas al protekto de sano aŭ sekureco de personoj, bestoj kaj plantoj, kaj por aranĝoj kiuj modifas neesencajn preskribojn de la bazaj leĝdonaj instrumentoj.

La Konsilia Decido de la 28-a de Junio 1999 kiu anstataŭis tiun de la 13-a de Julio 1987. Ĝi simpligas la sistemon kaj konsideras la novan kundecidan procezon. La komitata sistemo iĝis pli malfermita al ekzamenado de la Parlamento kaj de la publiko. La Komitataj dokumentoj estas pli facile alireblaj de civitanoj, kaj estas registritaj en publikan registron. Dank'al la komputilizado de decidofaraj procezoj, la celo estas publikigi surrete la kompletajn tekstojn de nekonfidencaj

dokumentoj senditaj al la Parlamento.
kompetento alpreni delegitajn Eŭropajn regularojn en:the power toenact delegated

regulations
fr: le pouvoir d’édicter des règlements

délégués

kompetento;
kompetenteco
en:competence
fr:compétence

Komuna agado en:Common action (justice and

home affairs)
fr:Action commune (JAI)

nl:Gemeenschappelijk optreden (JBZ)

Komuna agrikultura politiko en:Common agricultural policy

(CAP)
fr:Politique agricole commune (PAC)

nl:Gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid (GLB)

Komuna eksterlanda kaj sekurecapolitiko en:Common foreign and security

policy (CFSP)
fr:Politique étrangère et de sécurité commune (PESC)

nl:Gemeenschappelijk buitenlands en veiligheidsbeleid (GBVB)

Komuna fiŝkapta politiko en:Common fisheries policy

fr:Politique commune de la pêche

nl:Gemeenschappelijk visserijbeleid

Komuna komerca politiko en:Common commercial policy

fr:Politique commerciale commune

nl:Gemeenschappelijke handelspolitiek

Komuna

merkatorganizado de agrikulturaj produktoj

en:Common organisation of

agricultural markets (COM)
fr:Organisations communes des marchés agricoles (OCM)

nl:Gemeenschappelijke marktordening voor landbouwproducten

Komuna pozicio en:Common position (CFSP)

fr:Position commune (PESC)

nl:Gemeenschappelijk standpunt (GBVB)

Komuna starpunkto (Titiolo VI de la EUa Traktato) en:Joint position (Title VI of

the EU Treaty)
fr:Position commune (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Gemeenschappelijk standpunt (Titel VI van het VEU)
de:Gemeinsamer Standpunkt (Titel VI EU-Vertrag) Gemeinsame Aktion

(GASP)

Komuna strategio en:Common strategy (CFSP)

fr:Stratégie commune (PESC)

nl:Gemeenschappelijke strategie (GBVB)

Komuna transportpolitiko en:Common transport policy

fr:Politique commune des transports

nl:Gemeenschappelijk vervoerbeleid

Komuninteresaj servoj
en:General-interest services

fr:Services d'intérêt général
nl:Diensten van algemeen belang

de:Gemeinwohlorientierte Leistungen

Komunuma juro/ leĝaro? en:Community law

fr:Droit communautaire

nl:Gemeenschapsrecht

Strictly speaking, Community law consists of the founding Treaties (primary legislation) and the provisions of instruments enacted by the Community institutions by virtue of them (secondary legislation - regulations, directives, etc.). Once the European Constitution has been adopted, it will replace the current set of founding Treaties. Primary Community law will consist of the Constitution and its Protocols - including the Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is incorporated in it - and the Euratom Treaty.

In a broader sense, Community law encompasses all the rules of the Community legal order, including general principles of law, the case law of the Court of Justice, law flowing from the Community's external relations and supplementary law contained in conventions and similar agreements concluded between the Member States to give effect to Treaty provisions.

All these rules of law form part of what is known as the Community acquis.

Komunuma patento en:Community patent

fr:Brevet communautaire

nl:Gemeenschapsoctrooi

Komunuma transpontiĝo?? en:Community 'bridge' (Title VI

of the EU Treaty)
fr:Passerelle communautaire (titre VI du traité UE)

nl:Communautaire overbrugging

The decision-making process under the Treaty establishing the European Community (first pillar) may be introduced for certain provisions of Title VI of the Treaty on European Union (third pillar) in order to communitise them. This possibility has been available since the establishing of the European Union. This procedure, known as the "bridge", requires unanimity in the Council and ratification by each Member State in accordance with its national constitutional requirements.

The European Constitution, which is in the process of ratification, provides for the abolition of the bridge as conceived by the Maastricht Treaty, as the pillars will disappear. On the other hand it introduces another bridging mechanism allowing a change to qualified-majority voting for the adoption of legal instruments. However, the decision is taken by the European Council, acting unanimously. Two specific bridges are also envisaged for the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) -- with the exception of decisions with military or defence implications -- and for the multiannual financial framework respectively.

Komunuma akiritaĵaro en:Community acquis

fr:Acquis communautaire

nl:Acquis communautaire

The Community acquis is the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together within the European Union. It is constantly evolving and comprises:

  • the content, principles and political objectives of the Treaties;
  • the legislation adopted in application of the treaties and the case law of the Court of Justice;
  • the declarations and resolutions adopted by the Union;
  • measures relating to the common foreign and security policy;
  • measures relating to justice and home affairs;
  • international agreements concluded by the Community and those concluded by the Member States between themselves in the field of the Union's activities.

Thus the Community acquis comprises not only Community law in the strict sense, but also all acts adopted under the second and third pillars of the European Union and the common objectives laid down in the Treaties. The Union has committed itself to maintaining the Community acquis in its entirety and developing it further. Applicant countries have to accept the Community acquis before they can join the Union. Derogations from the acquis are granted only in exceptional circumstances and are limited in scope. To integrate into the European Union, applicant countries will have to transpose the acquis into their national legislation and implement it from the moment of their accession.

Komunumaj juraj instrumentoj en:Community legal instruments

fr:Instruments juridiques communautaires

nl:Communautaire rechtsinstrumenten

Komunumaj kaj interregistaraj metodoj en:Community and

intergovernmental methods
fr:Méthodes communautaire et intergouvernementale

nl:Communautaire en intergouvernementele methoden

Komunumaj rajtoj/ povoj? en:Community powers

fr:Compétences communautaires

nl:Communautaire bevoegdheden

Community powers are those that are conferred on the European Union (EU) in specific areas by the Member States.

There are three types of powers, which depend on how they are conferred:

  • Explicit powers: these are clearly defined in the relevant articles of the Treaties.
  • Implicit powers: according to the implicit powers theory, competence in external matters derives from explicit internal competence. Where the Treaties assign explicit powers to the Community in a particular area (e.g. transport), it must also have similar powers to conclude agreements with non-Community countries in the same field (the principle of parallelism between internal and external powers).
  • Subsidiary powers: where the Community has no explicit or implicit powers to achieve a Treaty objective concerning the common market, Article 308 of the Treaty establishing the European Community allows the Council, acting unanimously, to take the measures it considers necessary.

One of the main innovations in the European Constitution now being ratified is that it clarifies the powers of the Union. It clearly specifies the areas in which the Member States have transferred their powers of action to the Union.

It also distinguishes the following categories of Union powers, or "competences":

  • Exclusive competence: the Union acts alone on behalf of all its Member States. This category covers establishment of the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal market, monetary policy, the common commercial policy and the conservation of fishery resources.
  • Shared competence: the Union acts because its action confers a substantial benefit additional to that resulting from action by the Member States. Among the areas concerned are: the internal market, economic, social and territorial cohesion, agriculture, fisheries, the environment, consumer protection, transport, energy and the area of freedom, security and justice.
  • Competence to take supporting, coordinating or complementary action: the Union acts only to coordinate or complement the action undertaken by the Member States. This covers matters such as the protection and improvement of human health, industry, culture, tourism, education, youth, sport and vocational training.
Komunumigo??? en:Communitisation

fr:Communautarisation

nl:Communautarisering

Communitisation means transferring a matter which, in the institutional framework of the Union, is dealt with using the intergovernmental method (second and third pillars) to the Community method (first pillar).

The Community method is based on the idea that the general interest of Union citizens is best defended when the Community institutions play their full role in the decision-making process, with due regard for the subsidiarity principle.

Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam (May 1999), questions relating to the free movement of persons, which used to come under cooperation on justice and home affairs (third pillar), have been "communitised". After a five-year transitional phase, therefore, they will be dealt with under the Community method.

The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for the merger of the three existing pillars but retains certain specific procedures for the common foreign and security policy, including the defence policy. This will make it possible to communitise most of the matters currently handled by the intergovernmental method.

konciliacio en:
fr:
proceduro por atingi

interkompreniĝon de malsamopiniantoj aŭde homoj kun malsamaj interesoj

(Ĉarto de UN, trad. Raiph Harry)
konforme al en:in accordance with
fr:sans préjudice de

konforme al la dispozicioj en:in accordance with the

provisions

fr:conformément aux dispositions

Konkurencpovo en:Competitiveness

fr:Compétitivité

nl:Concurrentievermogen

Konkurenco en:Competition

fr:Concurrence

nl:Mededinging

Konvencio (Titolo VI de la


EUa traktato)

en:Convention (Title VI of the

EU Treaty)
fr:Convention (Titre VI du traité UE)
nl:Overeenkomst (titel VI van het EU-Verdrag)

de:Uebereinkommen (Titel VI EU-Vertrag)

Konsilio de Eŭropa Unio en:Council of the European Union


fr:Conseil de l'Union européenne

nl:Raad van de Europese Unie

Konsilio de Ministroj en:Council of Ministers
fr:le Conseil des ministres

La Konsilio de ministroj


decidas per kvalifika plimulto.

en:the Council of Ministers

shall act by a qualified majority.
fr: le Conseil des ministres statue à la majorité

qualifiée

Konsisto de la Eŭropa Komisiono en:Composition of the European

Commission
fr:Composition de la Commission européenne

nl:Samenstelling van de Europese Commissie

konstituciiga asembleo
en:european constituent assembly

fr:assemblée constituante européenne
nl:europese grondwetgevende vergadering
de:


Konstruema sindeteno en:Abstention, constructive

(positive abstention)
fr:Abstention constructive (abstention positive)

nl:Constructieve onthouding

Konsulta proceduro
en:Consultation procedure

fr:Procédure de l'avis simple (procédure de consultation)
nl:Raadplegingsprocedure

de:Verfahren der einfachen Stellungnahme (Anhörungsverfahren)

The consultation procedure (Article 192 of the EC Treaty) enables the European Parliament to give its opinion on a proposal from the Commission. In the cases laid down by the Treaty, the Council must consult the European Parliament before voting on the Commission proposal and take its views into account. However, it is not bound by the Parliament's position but only by the obligation to consult it. Parliament must be consulted again if the Council deviates too far from the initial proposal. The powers of Parliament are fairly limited under this procedure, in so far as it can only hope that the Commission takes its amendments into account in an amended proposal.

Apart from the cases laid down by the Treaties, the Council has also undertaken to consult Parliament on most important questions. The consultation is optional. In addition, this consultation procedure is used for the adoption of non-mandatory instruments, especially recommendations and opinions issued by the Council and the Commission.

The European Constitution, currently being ratified, will bring the consultation procedure under the heading of "special legislative procedures". The procedure will be applicable to Council laws and framework laws adopted after consulting (obtaining the opinion of) the European Parliament.

protekto de la konsumantoj en:Consumer protection

fr:Protection des consommateurs

nl:Consumentenbescherming

Batalo kontraŭ de monlavado en:Measures to combat money

laundering
fr:Lutte contre le blanchiment des capitaux
nl:Bestrijding van het witwassen van geld

de:Bekämpfung der Geldwäsche

Batalo kontraŭ organizita

krimado

en:Fight against organised crime


fr:Lutte contre la criminalité organisée
nl:Bestrijding van de georganiseerde criminaliteit

de:Bekämpfung der organisierten Kriminalität

Batalo kontraŭ  rasismo

kaj

ksenofobio
en:Fight against racism and

xenophobia
fr:Lutte contre le racisme et la xénophobie
nl:Bestrijding van racisme en vreemdelingenhaat

de:Bekämpfung von Rassismus und Fremdenfeindlichkeit

Batalo kontraŭ  terorismo en:Fight against terrorism

fr:Lutte contre le terrorisme
nl:Bestrijding van terrorisme

de:Bekämpfung des Terrorismus

Kontraŭdroga batalo/

Kontraŭado de drogoj/ Kontraŭbatalado de drogoj

en:Fight against drugs

fr:Lutte contre la drogue
nl:Drugsbestrijding

de:Drogenbekämpfung

Kontraŭfraŭda batalo/

Kontraŭado

de fraŭdo/
en:Fight against fraud

fr:Lutte contre la fraude
nl:Fraudebestrijding

de:Betrugsbekämpfung

Kontraŭtrusta leĝaro en:Antitrust control

fr:Antitrust

nl:Antitrustregels

Kontrolado de la aplikado de la Komunuma leĝaro en:Monitoring the application of

Community law
fr:Contrôle de l'application du droit communautaire
nl:Controle op de toepassing van het Gemeenschapsrecht

de:Kontrolle der Anwendung des Gemeinschaftsrechts

kontrolesploro farita de samfakuloj en:peer reviews

korporacio en:
fr:corporation

Kortumo en:the Court of Justice
fr:la Cour de justice

Kortumo de la Eŭropaj Komunumoj en:Court of Justice of the

European Communities
fr:Cour de justice des Communautés européennes (CJCE)
nl:Het Hof van Justitie van de Europese Gemeenschappen

de:Gerichtshof der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (EuGH)

Kriterioj de konverĝo en:Convergence criteria

fr:Critères de convergence

nl:Convergentiecriteria

Kulturo en:Culture

fr:Culture
nl:Cultuur

de:

Kundecida proceduro en:Codecision procedure

fr:Procédure de codécision

nl:Medebeslissingsprocedure

Kunlaborada proceduro en:Cooperation procedure

fr:Procédure de coopération

nl:Samenwerkingsprocedure

Kvalifika

majoritato;
Kvalifika plimulto

en:Qualified majority

fr:Majorité qualifiée
nl:Gekwalificeerde meerderheid

de:Qualifizierte Mehrheit

A qualified majority (QM) is the number of votes required in the Council for a decision to be adopted when issues are being debated on the basis of Article 205(2) of the EC Treaty.

Following the 2000 Inter Governmental Conference and the Nice Treaty, the number of votes allocated to each Member State has been re-weighted, in particular for those States with larger populations, so that the legitimacy of the Council's decisions can be safeguarded in terms of their demographic representativeness. After 1 November 2004, following enlargement of the Union, the QM went up to 232 votes out of a total of 321, representing a majority of the Member States. Moreover, a Member State may request verification that the QM represents at least 62% of the total population of the Union. If this is not the case, the decision is not adopted.

As the various institutional reforms have taken effect, QM voting (QMV) has replaced unanimous voting, which is less effective for developing an operational Community policy (veto risk).

The European Constitution currently being ratified provides for 45 new QMV situations. From 1 November 2009 the qualified majority will be based on a twofold-majority, requiring votes in favour from at least 55% of the Member States accounting for at least 65% of the Union's population. To ensure that the most populous Member States cannot block decisions, there will have to be a blocking minority of at least four Member States. Otherwise, the QM will be presumed to be met even if the population test is failed.

la Alta Tribunalo en:the High Court
fr:le Tribunal de grande instance

la Ekonomia kaj Sociala Komitato en:the Economic and Social

Committee

fr:le Comité économique et social

la Eŭropa Centra Banko en:the European Central Bank
fr:la Banque centrale européenne

la Eŭropa Konsilio en:the European Council
fr:le Conseil européen

la Eŭropa Konsilio rajtas

ĉesigi

la mandaton
en:theEuropean Council can end

his or her mandate

fr:Le Conseil européen peut mettre fin àson mandat

la eŭropaj parlamentaj elektoj en:the European

Parliamentary elections

fr:les élections parlementaires européennes

la fakaj tribunaloj en:specialised courts
fr:les tribunaux spécialisés

la Komitato de la Regionoj en:the Committee of the Regions
fr:le Comité des régions

la komunan eksteran kaj sekurecan politikon de la Unio en:the Union’s common foreign

and security policy

fr: la politique de sécurité et dedéfense commune

la kondiĉoj kaj aranĝoj por aliĝo en:the conditions and

arrangements for admission

fr:les conditions et les modalités d’admission

La konsultaj organoj de la Unio en:The Union’s advisory bodies
fr: les organes consultatifs del'Union

La Membroŝtatoj havas rajton je iniciato en:Member States shall have a

right of initiative

fr: les États membres disposent d’un droit d’initiative

la Oficiala Gazeto de la Eŭropa Unio en:the Official Journal of

the European Union

fr: Journal officiel de l’Union européenne

Nord-Atlantika Traktat-Organizo en:the NorthAtlantic Treaty

Organisation

fr: l’Organisation du traité de l’Atlantique Nord

la plurjara financa kadro en:the multiannual

financial framework

fr:le cadre financier pluriannuel

la prezidanto de la Eŭropa

Komisiono

en:the President of the

European Commission

fr:le Président de la Commission européenne.

la prezidanto de la Eŭropa

Konsilio

en:the President of the

European Council

fr:le Président du Conseil européen

la tagordo en:the agenda
fr:l’ordre du jour

la unia ministro pri eksterajaferoj en:the Union Minister for Foreign

Affairs

fr:le ministre des Affaires étrangères de l’Union

la Unio ne influas... en:the Union does

not prejudice ...
fr:l’Union ne préjuge pas de...

I-52-1.

en: The Union respects and does not prejudice the status under national law of churches and religious associations or communities in the Member States.
fr:L'Union respecte et ne préjuge pas du statut dont bénéficient, en vertu du droit national, les églises et les associations ou communautés religieuses dans les États membres.
en:the common security and defence policy of the Union does not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States;
fr:la politique de sécurité et de défense commune de l'Union n'affecte pas le caractère spécifique de la politique de sécurité et de défense de certains États membres;

la Ŝtatestroj aŭ Registarestrojde la Membroŝtatoj en:the Heads of State or

Government of the Member States

fr:les Chefs d’État ou de gouvernement des États membres

Laborpostenoj;

Dungado;
(En)laborigo;
(en)postenigo;
laborpolitiko;

dungpolitiko
en:Employment

fr:Emploi
nl:Werkgelegenheid

de:Beschäftigung

Promoting a high level of employment has been one of the Community's objectives since the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force in May 1999 and added a Title VIII "Employment" to the Treaty establishing the European Community.

The Union's responsibilities with regard to employment are complementary to those of the Member States, the main aim being to create a European Employment Strategy (EES). The EES is intended as the main instrument to provide direction and coordinate the employment policy priorities supported by the Member States at European level.

The new Title VIII "Employment" also requires an Employment Committee with advisory status to be established, to facilitate the Union's task of promoting the coordination of national employment and labour market policies.

The Lisbon European Council (March 2000) considered that the overall aim of these measures was to raise the overall employment rate in the European Union to 70% and the female employment rate to more than 60% by 2010. The Stockholm European Council (March 2001) added two intermediate targets and one additional target:

  • the overall employment rate and the female employment rate to reach 67% and 57% respectively in 2005;
  • the employment rate for older workers to reach 50% by 2010.

The Barcelona Council (March 2002) called for the reinforcement of the European Employment Strategy as an instrument of the Lisbon Strategy.

Financial support for employment policy is provided through various instruments:

  • the future programme PROGRESS 2007-2013, the aim of which is to provide financial assistance for work towards the Union's employment and social affairs objectives;
  • the priorities of the European Social Fund which are part of the EES objectives;
  • the Mutual Learning Programme, launched at the beginning of 2005, as part of the incentive measures to promote employment. Its main objective is to enhance the transferability of the most effective policies within key areas of the EES.

At European level, the main structures in the field of employment are:

  • the European Employment Observatory, an employment policy information system established in 1982 by the Commission in collaboration with the national authorities;
  • the EURES network, which contributes to creating a European labour market accessible to all through the international, interregional and cross-border exchange of job vacancies and applications and the exchange of information on living conditions and gaining qualifications.
laŭ speciala leĝdona(?) proceduro en:according to a special

legislative procedure
fr:conformément à une procédure législative

spéciale

Eŭropo laŭ libera elekto en:Europe 'à la carte'

fr:
nl:

de:

Legebleco de la traktatoj;

klareco de la traktatoj;
plisimpligo de la traktatoj

en:Clarity of the Treaties

(simplification of the Treaties)
fr:Lisibilité des traités (simplification des traités)

nl:Leesbaarheid van de Verdragen (vereenvoudiging van deverdragen)

The European Union has come into being gradually and its structure is the result of a succession of amendments to the various treaties. This has led to a situation where the lack of clarity and readability of the founding texts of the Union has created a gulf between the Union and the public.

The Treaty of Rome was followed by the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union (the "Maastricht Treaty"). This Treaty created a new structure, the European Union, in addition to the European Communities, which has three pillars (the European Communities, common foreign and security policy and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs). The Nice and Amsterdam Treaties contain amendments to the earlier treaties and a new article numbering system. Several protocols and declarations are also annexed to these treaties.

In December 2001 the Laeken Declaration launched a process of simplification of the treaties. The process culminated in the adoption of the Constitution currently being ratified, which substantially simplifies the Treaties.

Once it is in force, the Constitution will repeal all the existing primary legislation - preceding treaties, instruments amending or amplifying them, and treaties and acts of accession. The European Union will thus operate on the basis of a single instrument.

legitima en:
fr:légitime
(pri politika strukturo aŭ

aferstato) havanta subtenon desia reprezentataro, kutime sankciitan per

la voĉoj de demokratiaplimulto
krimoj en:criminal offences
fr: infractions pénales

Libera moviĝo de personoj (Vizo,a zilo, enmigrado kaj aliaj decidkampoj) en:Free movement of persons

(visas, asylum, immigration and other policies)
fr:Libre circulation des personnes (visas, asile, immigration et autres politiques)
nl:Vrij verkeer van personen (visa, asiel, immigratie en andere beleidsterreinen)
de:Freier Personenverkehr (Visa, Asyl, Einwanderung und

andere Politiken)

Lisbona strategio en:Lisbon Strategy

fr:Stratégie de Lisbonne
nl:Strategie van Lissabon

de:

lobii en:
fr:
provi persvadi politikistojn,

registaron k.s. pri laokazigindeco aŭ malhelpindeco de io, pri

"ŝanĝindeco de leĝo k.s.(vaste uzata, sed ne-NPIV-a)
Luksemburga kompromiso en:Luxembourg compromise

fr:Compromis de Luxembourg
nl:Compromis van Luxemburg

de:

Malferma kunordiga metodo en:Open method of coordination

fr:Méthode ouverte de coordination
nl:Open coördinatiemethode

de:Offene Koordinierungsmethode

malfermita, malkaŝema kaj

regula

dialogo
en:an open,transparent and

regular dialogue

fr:un dialogueouvert, transparent et régulier

Malgrandaj kaj mezgrandaj entreprenoj en:Small and medium-sized

enterprises
fr:Petites et moyennes entreprises (PME)
nl:Kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen

de:Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU)

Malpermeso de diskriminaciado/Principo de nediskriminaciado en:Non-discrimination principle

fr:Principe de la non-discrimination
nl:Non-discriminatie (beginsel van…)

de:Diskriminierungsverbot

maniero funkcii en:operating methods
fr: modalités de fonctionnement

Mediacia komitato en:Conciliation Committee

fr:Comité de conciliation

nl:Bemiddelingscomité

Membroŝtataj parlamentoj en:National parliaments

fr:Parlements nationaux
nl:Nationale parlementen

de:Parlamente der Mitgliedstaaten

Membroŝtato en:Member State
fr:État membre

Metiedukado/Metiinstruado en:Vocational training

fr:Formation professionnelle
nl:Beroepsopleiding

de:Berufsbildung

minimume unu miliono dacivitanoj povas iniciati en:no less than one

million citizens may invite

fr:sur initiative d’au moins un million de citoyens

Monpolitiko en:Monetary policy

fr:Politique monétaire
nl:Monetair beleid

de:Währungspolitik

naciaj/membroŝtataj fakuloj

disponigataj al la EU

en:national experts

seconded  to EU
fr:experts nationaux détachés auprès de l'UE
nl:

de:
tradukenda: Experts nationaux

détachés

auprès de l’UE
Il s’agit de postes dits de "mise à disposition". 


Ne peuvent donc postuler que les personnes dont l’employeur accepte de continuer à les rémunérer si leur candidature est retenue.

Najbareca politiko
en:Neighbourhood Policy

fr:Voisinage (politique de)
nl:Nabuurschapsbeleid

de:Nachbarschaftspolitik

najbarpolitiko
en:

fr:la politique européenne de voisinage
nl:

de:

NATO ( NordAtlantika TraktatOrganizo = Organizaĵo de Nord-Atlantika Traktato) en:NATO (North Atlantic Treaty

Organisation)
fr:OTAN (Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord)
nl:NAVO (Noord-Atlantische Verdragsorganisatie)

de:NATO (Nordatlantikpakt-Organisation)
Organizaĵo de Nord-Atlantika

Traktato (NATO, aŭ la Atlantiko Alianco) estis fondita de La nordo Atlantiko Traktato, kiu ankaŭ nomiĝis la Traktaton de Vaŝingtono, subskribita la 4-an de Aprilo 1949, kaj havas ĝian sidejon en Bruselo. Ĝi aktuale havas 26 membrojn, post sinsekvajn ploivastigojn:

  • 1949 (12 fondintajn membrojn): Belgio, Kanado, Danio, Francio, Islando, Italio, Luksemburgio, Nederlando, Norvegio, Portugalio, Britio, Usonn;
  • Februaro 1952: Grekio kaj Turkio;
  • Majo 1955: la Federalan Respublikon de Germanio;
  • Majo 1982: Hispanio;
  • Marto 1999: la Ĉeĥa Respubliko, Hungario kaj Pollando;
  • Marto 2004: Bulgario, Estonio, Latvio, Litovio, Rumanio, Slovakio kaj Slovenio.

La EU politiko respektas la NATO-devontigojn de la koncernaj Membroŝtatoj. La komuna politiko pri sekureco kaj defendo estas

difinita en tiu kadro.
Natura 2000 Eŭropa naturprotektazonaro en:Natura 2000
fr:

natura aŭ jura persono en:natural or legal person
fr:personne physique ou morale

nepartopreno;

nepartoprena klaŭzo 

en:Opting out

fr:Opting out (clause d'exemption)
nl:Opting out (uitstapmogelijkheid)

de:Opting out (Nichtbeteiligung)

Enoficigo de la Eŭropa Komisiono en:Confirmation of the European

Commission
fr:Investiture de la Commission européenne

nl:Benoeming van de Europese Commissie

Nutraĵa sekureco en:Food safety

fr:Sécurité alimentaire
nl:Voedselveiligheid

de:Lebensmittelsicherheit

Okcident-Eŭropa Unio en:Western European Union (WEU)

fr:Union de l'Europe occidentale (UEO)
nl:West-Europese Unie (WEU)

de:Westeuropäische Union (WEU)

OLAF (Office européen de

lutte

antifraude)
en:OLAF (European Anti-fraud

Office)
fr:OLAF (Office européen de lutte antifraude)
nl:OLAF (Europees Bureau voor fraudebestrijding)

de:OLAF (Europäisches Amt für Betrugsbekämpfung)
OLAF (Eŭropa kontraŭfrauda

ofico)
La Eŭropa Kontraŭfraŭdofico respondecas ekde la 1-a de Junio 1999 por kontraŭbatali fraŭdon malprofite al la Eŭropunia buĝeto.

Kreita de Eŭropa Komisiono Decido, OLAF anstataŭigis UCLAF (Unité de coordination de la lutte antifraude = Kunordiga Unuo Kontraŭ Fraŭdo ) , kreita en 1988 kun mandato limigita al la Eŭropa Komisiono.

La nova Ofico rajtas prienketi la administradon kaj financadon de ĉiuj Uniaj institucioj kaj organoj kun absoluta operacia sendependeco. Tiu sendependeco estas garantiita de:

  • la Direktoro de OLAF: nomumita post interkonsento kun Parlamento, la Komisiono kaj la Konsilio, li povas apelacii antaŭ la Kortumo de la Eŭropaj Komunumoj por protekti sian sendependecon.. Cetere, li povas iniciati enketon ne nur post peto de la koncerna institucio, organo aŭ Membroŝtato, sed ankaŭ propravole;
  • la Kontrolkomitato de la OLAF: respondeca pri kontrolado de la enketa laboro; ĝi konsistas el kvin sendependaj eksteraj personoj, nomumitaj kune kun la Parlamento, la Komisiono kaj la Konsilio.

La kondiĉoj por la internaj enketoj faritaj de OLAF por batali kontraŭ fraŭdo, korupto kaj alia kontraŭleĝa agado kiu malprofitas al la financaju interesoj de la Eŭropaj Komunumoj, estis preskribitaj en interinstitucia interkonsento de majo 1999 inter la Parlamento, la Konsilio kaj la Komisiono. Tiu interkonsento etendas la potencojn de la Ofico al oinkluzivo de gravaj kazoj de profesia miskondukto de respondeculoj kaj aliaj oficistoj kiuj povas okazigi disciplinajn aŭ punajn persekvoj. Pluraj regularoj pritraktas la sciigo de neregulaĵoj kaj la repago de sumoj malĝuste elspezitaj. Aliaj regularoj preskribis la proceduron sekvendan dum enketoj kaj operacioj, kaj ankaŭ dum surlokaj kontroloj.

opinio en:opinion
fr: avis

Parlamentaj komisionoj en:Parliamentary committees

fr:Commissions parlementaires
nl:Parlementaire commissies

de:Ausschüsse des Europäischen Parlaments

per kvalifikita plimulto en:by qualified majority
fr:à la majorité qualifiée

per unuanima decido en:acting unanimously
fr:statuant à l'unanimité

Peticia rajto en:Petitions

fr:Droit de pétition
nl:Petitierecht

de:Petitionsrecht

Pilieroj de Eŭropa Unio en:Pillars of the European Union


fr:Piliers de l'Union européenne
nl:Pijlers van de Europese Unie

de:Pfeiler der Europäische Union

plenkunsido en:plenary session
fr:session plénière

plenrajtigito en:
fr:

Intensigita kunlaboro en:Enhanced cooperation

fr:Coopération renforcée
nl:Nauwere samenwerking

de:Verstärkte Zusammenarbeit

Plifortigita kvalifikita plimulto en:Reinforced qualified majority


fr:Majorité qualifiée renforcée
nl:Versterkte gekwalificeerde meerderheid

de:Verstärkte qualifizierte Mehrheit

When the Council acts without a Commission Proposal being necessary (in the fields of foreign policy and common security or police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters), the qualified majority must include at least two thirds of the Member States.

At the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference, which led to the adoption of the Amsterdam Treaty, the idea of a reinforced qualified majority was brought up both by a large number of national delegations and by the European Commission.

This proposal stems from the conviction that if the unanimity requirement is maintained, it would all too often result in stalemate in an enlarged Union. Unanimity might therefore be replaced in certain cases by a reinforced qualified majority that is greater than the normal percentage of votes generally required for majority voting.

The European Constitution, which is in the process of being ratified, provides for the threshold for a qualified majority to be raised to 72% for all acts other than those proposed by the European Commission or by the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Plisimpligo de la leĝdonado en:Simplification of legislation


fr:Simplification législative
nl:Vereenvoudiging van de wetgeving

de:Vereinfachung der Rechtsvorschriften

Plivastigo;

plivastiĝo;
plilarĝigo;
plilarĝiĝo;

en:Enlargement

fr:Elargissement
nl:Uitbreiding

de:Erweiterung

The European Union currently has 25 Member States. In addition to the first six Member States -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands -- 19 countries have acceded to the Union. These are:

  • 1973: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom;
  • 1981: Greece;
  • 1986: Spain and Portugal;
  • 1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden;
  • 2004: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

Bulgaria and Romania are in the course of joining the Union. On 25 April 2005, these two countries signed a treaty providing for their accession, in principle on 1 January 2007, or perhaps 1 January 2008.

Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey have the status of candidate countries. Accession negotiations with Croatia and Turkey opened on 3 October 2005.

The countries of the Western Balkans which are engaged in the stabilisation and association process have the status of potential candidate countries. Apart from Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, which are candidate countries, these are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia, including Kosovo, under United Nations tutelage.

plurmedio en:
fr:
"Homa-komputila interagado per

pluraj datumspecoj(en pluraj datummedioj): teksto; senmova aŭ moviĝanta

bildo, sonoktp" (Komputada leksikono, Sergio Pokrovskij, 1995-2003)
Polica kaj justica kunlaboro prikrimaferoj en:Police and judicial

cooperation in criminal matters
fr:Coopération policière et judiciaire en matière pénale
nl:Politiële en justitiële samenwerking in strafzaken

de:Polizeiliche und justizielle Zusammenarbeit in Strafsachen

Politika kaj sekureca komitato en:Political and Security

Committee (PSC)
fr:Comité politique et de sécurité (COPS)
nl:Politiek en Veiligheidscomité (PVC)

de:Politisches und Sicherheitspolitisches Komitee (PSK)

Pondado de voĉoj en la konsilio en:Weighting of votes in the

Council
fr:Pondération des voix au Conseil
nl:Stemmenweging in de Raad

de:Stimmengewichtung im Rat

pontlingvo en:lingva franca
fr:lingva franca

pragmatiko en:
fr:
kogna, socia kaj kultura

studado de lingvo kajkomunikado (la vorto, ne la difino, aperas en Angla-Esperanta-Hungara etvortaro pri Lingvo kaj Komunikado, Koutny,

2003) preamblo
preamblo en:
fr:préambule
solena enkonduko alkonstitucio,

internacia akto ktp(Deklingva manlibro pri politiko, red. Stefan Maul,

1994)
Prezidanto de la eŭropuniakomisiono en:President of the European

Commission
fr:Président de la Commission européenne
nl:Voorzitter van de Europese Commissie

de:Präsident der Europäischen Kommission

Prezidenteco de la eŭropuni konsilio en:Presidency of the Council of

the European Union
fr:Présidence du Conseil de l'Union européenne
nl:Voorzitterschap van de Raad van de Europese Unie

de:Vorsitz des Rates der Union

principo de transdono de

kompetentoj;
principo de cedo de kompetentoj

en:the principle of conferral.
fr:le principe d'attribution

Principo de proporcieco en:Proportionality principle

fr:Proportionnalité (Principe de)
nl:Evenredigheidsbeginsel

de:Verhältnismäßigkeit (Grundsatz der)

principo de proporcieco en:the principle of

proportionality.

fr:le principe de proportionnalité

principo de subsidiareco en:the principle of subsidiarity


fr:le principe de subsidiarité

pritrakti la kurantajn aferojn en:to handle everyday business
fr:expédier les affaires courantes

Proceduro ĉe ekscesa deficito en:Excessive deficit procedure

fr:Procédure de déficit excessif
nl:Procedure bij buitensporige tekorten

de:Verfahren bei einem übermäßigen Defizit

Proceso de Barcelono en:Barcelona Process

fr:Processus de Barcelone

nl:Proces van Barcelona

Profundigo;

Profundiĝo 

en:Deepening

fr:Approfondissement
nl:Verdieping

de:

Deepening refers to the integration dynamic present from the outset of the European venture. Through the customs union, the internal market, and then the Euro zone, the European Communities have grown into what aspires to be an "ever closer union" among the peoples of Europe (Article 1 of the EU Treaty). Deepening is a process parallel to, and often viewed as a necessary step prior to, enlargement.

In this spirit it has been decided to reform the main Community policies (common agricultural policy and structural policy) and the workings of the institutions to create a favourable context for new Member States to join the European Union.

Programo de komunuma helpo al landoj de centra kaj orienta Eŭropo en:Programme of Community aid to

the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Phare)
fr:Programme d'aide communautaire aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale (Phare)
nl:Programma voor bijstand aan de Midden- en Oost-Europeselanden (Phare)
de:Phare (Gemeinschaftliches Hilfsprogramm für Länder in Mittel-und

Osteuropa)

proporcia elektado
en:election with proportional

representation
fr:élection à la proportionnelle
nl:

de:

Propraj rimedoj/ resursoj en:Own resources

fr:Ressources propres
nl:Eigen middelen

de:Eigenmittel

protokolo en:Protocol.
fr:protocole

Protokolo de Kioto en:Kyoto Protocol

fr:Protocole de Kyoto
nl:Protocol van Kyoto

de:

publika sano en:public health
fr:santé publique

Publika servo en:Public service

fr:Service public
nl:Openbare dienst

de:Oeffentlicher Dienst

Publikaj komisioj en:Public procurement

fr:Marchés publics
nl:Overheidsopdrachten

de:Oeffentliche Aufträge

Publiksana politiko en:Public health

fr:Santé publique
nl:Volksgezondheid

de:Gesundheitspolitik

Publikserva ĉarto en:Public service charter

fr:Charte des services publics
nl:Handvest van de openbare diensten

de:Charta der öffentlichen Dienste

rajtoj kaj devontigoj en:rights and obligations
fr:droits et obligations

ratifo en:ratification
fr:ratification

Regado en:Governance

fr:Gouvernance
nl:Governance

de:Regieren

registaro en:government
fr:gourvernement

Reglamentara kadro por kemiaĵoj en:REACH (regulatory framework

for chemicals)
fr:REACH : cadre réglementaire pour les produits chimiques
nl:Reach: regelgevingskader voor chemische stoffen

de:REACH: Rechtsrahmen für chemische Stoffe

rekomendo en:recommendations
fr: recommandations

Renovigita NATO 
en:'New-look' NATO

fr:OTAN 'rénovée'
nl:NAVO "vernieuwde"

de:'Erneuerte' NATO
Renovigita NATO (Organizaĵo de

Nord-Atlantika Traktato) temas pri procezo de redifino de la misioj kaj funkciado de NATO. Tiuj procezo karakteriziĝas per rekono de Eŭropa identeco pri defendo, per fortigo de la Eŭropa komponanto de la transatlantika sekurecsistemo, per nova rolo de la OEU (Orienta Eŭropa Unio), kaj per perspektivo  de  plivastiĝo de NATO al Oriento.
Tiu procezo estas akompanata de plifortigo de NATO-rilatoj kun aliaj landoj tra partneradoj por paco kaj tra la nord-atlantika Kunlaboro-Konsilio (NAKK). Grava defio tiurilate estas starigi 

firman, stabilan kaj daŭran partneradon kun Rusio kaj Ukrajno.
reprezenta demokratio en:representative democracy
fr:démocratie représentative

Reverkado de leĝdonaj tekstoj en:Recasting of legislation

fr:Refonte des textes législatifs
nl:Omwerking van wetgevingsteksten

de:Neufassung der Rechtsvorschriften

Revizio de la traktatoj en:Revision of the Treaties

fr:Révision des traités
nl:Herziening van de verdragen

de:Aenderung der Verträge

Revizora Kortumo en:the Court of Auditors
fr: la Cour des comptes

Rura(?) evoluigo en:Rural development

fr:Développement rural
nl:Plattelandsontwikkeling

de:Ländliche Entwicklung

Rural development is the second pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP). It is in line with the Lisbon objective on competitiveness and the Gothenburg objective on sustainability and focuses on four fundamental areas:

  • the competitiveness of agriculture, food products and forestry;
  • land management and the environment;
  • quality of life and diversification in rural areas;
  • the Leader Community initiative.

Competitiveness is to be improved through measures targeting human and physical capital and food products, including quality production. Measures to protect natural resources and improve high nature value farming and forestry systems and cultural landscapes are being introduced. The quality of life in rural areas is being improved by encouraging the diversification of economic activities and the development of local infrastructure. Finally, the Leader initiative promotes diversification of the economic activities of rural areas through innovative, integrated local development schemes with an emphasis on participation.

Rural development policy has its own integrated financing and programming arrangements. The Council has drawn up a strategic approach for the 2007-2013 period, which will be translated into national strategic plans. As of 1 January 2007 all the measures will be financed by a single fund: the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).

Samcentraj rondoj/ cirkloj? en:Concentric circles

fr:Cercles concentriques

nl:Concentrische cirkels
This concept involves a Europe

made up of subsets of states which have achieved different levels of integration. It is not confined just to the integration structure of the European Union, and the idea has been expanded upon by a number of prominent figures. Some of them talk of "the circle of shared law" (the Union's Member States), the "adjacent circle" (the countries outside the Union waiting to join it) and "more select circles" for the purpose of greater cooperation (the currency circle, the defence circle and so

on).
sana financa administro en:sound financial management
fr:bonne gestion financière

sankcio en:
fr:sanction
"puno aŭ rekompenco sekvanta

ian moralan aŭ socian agon"(Reta Vortaro, <http: revo="">; ne

registrita ĉi-sence en NP1V) </http:>
Screening (antaŭaliĝa

esplorado)

en:Screening
fr:

Servoj pri ĝenerala ekonomia intereso en:Services of general economic

interest
fr:Services d'intérêt économique général
nl:Diensten van algemeen economisch belang

de:Dienstleistungen von allgemeinem wirtschaftlichem Interesse

Simpligo de juraj tekstoj en:Consolidation of legislation

- informal/declaratory
fr:Consolidation des textes législatifs

nl:Consolidatie van wetteksten

Sociala dialogo en:Social dialogue

fr:Dialogue social
nl:Sociale dialoog

de:Sozialer Dialog

Sociala politiko en:Social policy

fr:Politique sociale
nl:Sociale politiek

de:Sozialpolitik

Sociala ĉarto (ĉarto de la fundamentaj socialaj rajtoj de dungitoj) en:Social Charter (Charter of

the Fundamental Social RightsofWorkers)
fr:Charte sociale (charte des droits sociaux fondamentaux des travailleurs)
nl:Sociaal handvest (handvest van de sociale grondrechten van de werkenden)
de:Sozialcharta (Charta der sozialen Grundrechte der Arbeitnehmer)


Socialaj partneroj en:Social partners

fr:Partenaires sociaux
nl:Sociale partners

de:Sozialpartner

Stabileca kaj kresk(ig)a pakto en:Stability and Growth Pact

fr:Pacte de stabilité et de croissance
nl:Stabiliteits- en groeipact

de:Stabilitäts- und Wachstumspakt

Stabiliga kaj unuiga procezo en:Stabilisation and Association

Process
fr:Processus de stabilisation et d'association
nl:Stabilisatie- en associatieproces

de:Stabilisierungs- und Assoziierungsprozess

Statuto de la eŭropaj delegitoj/parlamentanoj en:Statute for Members of the

European Parliament
fr:Statut des députés européens
nl:Statuut van de Europese afgevaardigden

de:Statut der Abgeordneten des Europäischen Parlaments

Statutoj de la eŭropaj

politikaj

partioj
en:European political parties

fr:Statut des partis politiques européens
nl:Statuut van de Europese politieke partijen

de:Satzung der europäischen politischen Parteien

Strukturfonduso kaj koherofonduso en:Structural Funds and Cohesion

Fund
fr:Fonds structurels et Fonds de cohésion
nl:Structuurfondsen en Cohesiefonds

de:Strukturfonds und Kohäsionsfonds

Subsidiaraj? kompetencoj(?)povoj? en:Subsidiary powers

fr:Compétences subsidiaires
nl:Subsidiaire bevoegdheden

de:Subsidiäre Zuständigkeit

Article 308 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) provides a measure of flexibility with regard to the Community's areas of competence. It thus allows the Community's powers to be adjusted to the objectives laid down by the Treaty when the latter has not provided the powers of action necessary to attain them.

Article 308 of the EC Treaty thus cannot be used as a legal basis unless the following conditions are met:

  • the action envisaged is "necessary to attain, in the operation of the common market, one of the objectives of the Community";
  • no provision in the Treaty provides for action to attain the objective.

Moreover, it is for the Council of the European Union, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Parliament, to decide whether this Article should be used.

Article 308 thus reflects awareness on the part of those who drafted the Treaty of Rome that the powers specifically conferred (functional competence) might not be adequate for the purpose of attaining the objectives expressly set by the Treaties themselves (competence ratione materiae). It cannot in any circumstances be used as a basis for extending the areas of competence of the Community.

subsidiareco en:Subsidiarity

fr:Subsidiarité
nl:Subsidiariteit

de:Subsidiarität
La vortaro New Shorter Oxford

English Dictionary, 1993, diraske la termino envenis la anglan el la germana, meze de la 20-a jc. Ĝidifinas subsidiarecon kiel "la principon laŭ kiu centra autoritatodevus havi subsidiaran funkcion, plenumante nur tiujn taskojn kiuj nepovas esti efike plenumataj ĉe pli rekta au

loka nivela".
Suspenda klaŭzo en:Suspension clause

fr:Clause de suspension
nl:Schorsingsclausule

de:Suspensionsklausel

TAIEX (Technical Assistance and Information Exchange) en:TAIEX (Technical Assistance

Information Exchange)
fr:TAIEX (Technical Assistance and Information Exchange) (!ĉiulingve!)

de:
La Programo de Teknika Helpo

kaj de interŝanĝo de Informoj (TAIEX) celas helpi instituciojn dum misioj je mallonga tempolimo, kaj aplikiĝas en okazoj de alpreno aŭ efektivigo de komunuma havaĵo. Tiu programo estis funkcianta ekde 1996,  kaj ĝiaj respondecoj kaj agterenoj multe plivastiĝis ekde tiam.

TAIEX helpo celas  kandidatlandojn, aliĝantajn landojn kadre de la antaŭ-aliĝa strategio kaj provprocezo, la dek novajn Membroŝtatoj kaj la landojn de la Okcidentaj Balkanoj.

TAIEX ankaŭ celas la landojn kiuj partoprenas al la Eŭropa najbarpolitiko kaj al Rusio, al kiuj ĝi helpas dum redaktado kaj efektivigado de iliajn leĝjon konforme al ilia agoplanoj.

TAIEX centralizas petojn al helpo ambaŭ de publikaj respondeculoj kaj de privata sektoro kaj faciligas la kontaktoj inter la petantoj  kaj la Membroŝtatoj. Ĝi disponigas fakulojn kaj aranĝas kontrolesplorojn de samfakuloj, studo- aŭ takso-vizitoj, seminarioj, laborkunvenoj kaj trejnkunsidoj. Ĝi ankaŭ helpas traduki leĝojn kaj de fakaj informbankoj kaj provizas informojn pri la harmanizado de leĝoj.

Taskoj de Petersberg en:Petersberg tasks

fr:Missions de Petersberg
nl:Petersbergtaken

de:Petersberger Aufgaben

Telekomunikado en:Telecommunications

fr:Télécommunications
nl:Telecommunicatie

de:Telekommunikation

Televido sen limoj en:Television without frontiers

fr:Télévision sans frontières
nl:Televisie zonder grenzen

de:Fernsehen ohne Grenzen

Traktato de Amsterdamo en:Treaty of Amsterdam

fr:Traité d'Amsterdam
nl:Verdrag van Amsterdam

de:Vertrag von Amsterdam

Traktato de Nico en:Treaty of Nice

fr:Traité de Nice
nl:Verdrag van Nice

de:Vertrag von Nizza

Traktato pri Estigo de Eŭropa Konstitucio en:Treaty establishing

a Constitution for Europe

fr:TRAITE ÉTABLISSANT UNE CONSTITUTION POUR L’EUROPE

Traktatoj en:Treaties

fr:Traités
nl:Verdragen

de:Verträge

Travideblco de la agoj de lakonsilio en:Transparency of Council

proceedings
fr:Transparence des travaux du Conseil
nl:Doorzichtigheid van de werkzaamheden van de Raad

de:Transparenz der Arbeit des Rates

Travidebleco (dokumentaliro) en:Transparency (access to

documents)
fr:Transparence (accès aux documents)
nl:Doorzichtigheid (toegang tot documenten)

de:Transparenz (Zugang zu den Dokumenten)

Triopo (reprezentantaro de EU) en:Troïka

fr:Troïka
nl:Trojka

de:Troika

Tuteŭropa retaro en:Trans-European Networks (TEN)


fr:Réseaux transeuropéens (RTE)
nl:Trans-Europese netwerken (TEN)

de:Transeuropäische Netze (TEN)

tutmondiĝo en:
fr:mondialisation

Universala servo en:Universal service

fr:Service universel
nl:Universele dienst

de:Universaldienst

Unua instanca tribunalo de la eŭropaj komunumoj en:Court of First Instance of

the European Communities (CFI)
fr:Tribunal de première instance des Communautés européennes(TPICE)

nl:Gerecht van eerste aanleg van de Europese Gemeenschappen

Unuanimeco (voĉdona) en:Unanimity

fr:Unanimité
nl:Eenparigheid van stemmen

de:Einstimmigkeit

Unuforma voĉdona proceduro por la eŭropa Parlamento en:Uniform electoral procedure

for the European Parliament
fr:Procédure électorale uniforme au Parlement européen
nl:Eenvormige verkiezingsprocedure voor het Europees Parlement

de:Einheitliches Wahlverfahren zum Europäischen Parlament

Unuiĝinta en sia diverseco en:united in its diversity
fr:Unie dans sa diversité

Unuopa institucia kadro en:Single institutional

framework
fr:Cadre institutionnel unique
nl:Institutioneel kader (één)

de:Einheitlicher institutioneller Rahmen

Verdlibroj en:Green Paper

fr:Livres verts
nl:Groenboeken

de:Grünbücher

Vivmedia responso en:Environmental liability

fr:Responsabilité environnementale
nl:Milieuaansprakelijkheid

de:Umwelthaftung

Vivmedio en:Environment

fr:Environnement
nl:Milieu

de:Umwelt

Ĉarto de fundamentaj rajtoj en:Charter of Fundamental Rights


fr:Charte des droits fondamentaux

nl:Handvest van de grondrechten

ĉarto en:charter.
fr:charte

ĝenerala advokato en:Advocate-General
fr:avocatgénéral

Ŝengen (Interkonsento kaj konvencio) en:Schengen (Agreement and

Convention)
fr:Schengen (accord et convention)
nl:Schengen (akkoord en uitvoeringsovereenkomst)

de:Schengen (Abkommen und Übereinkommen)

Ŝtatsubteno en:State aid

fr:Aides d'État
nl:Overheidssteun

de:Staatliche Beihilfen

ŝtatanoj en:the nationals of that State;
fr:les ressortissants de cet État